The basic stitch constructions describe the various lapping, their designations have partly been taken from weaving,however, without any common features from the point of view of the lapping technique.
Basic stitch constructions worked as one-bar constructions are without much importance, because optical, elastic and stability properties do not meet the needs of a textile fabric.
All basic stitch constructions can be worked open or closed.
The following stitch constructions are described:
Basic binding combination of single-face fabrics
Fabrics with combined bindings are fabrics which are produced with at least two guide bars.
Bindings are combined with each other to improve the properties of the fabrics (e.g. strength, elasticity, stretch, appearance, etc.) thus increasing their service value. The properties are mainly influenced by the following aspects:
- yarn parts in horizontal direction (e.g. under-laps, inlays)
- yarn parts in vertical direction (e.g. fillers, floats)
- thickness of the yarn
- lapping direction of the guide bars to each other (equal- or counter-lapped)
The fabric properties are considerably influenced by the lapping direction of the bindings with regard to each other,whether they are open or closed, etc.
Because the guide bars displace sideways two times per course, the lapping direction of the guide bars to each other can also be different twice per course. That is why we distinguish between equal-lapping and counter-lapping in overlap and under-lap direction.
Because the under-lap of an open pillar stitch has no direction, the under-lap displacement is compared with the overlap displacement of the next pillar stitch.
Two bindings are worked absolutely equal-lapped if the under-lap and overlap displacement are in the same direction.
When analyzing an equal-lapped pattern, the following characteristics become evident (compared to counter-lapped patterns):
- the wales are not straight (alternating effect)
- the fabric is more stretchable in lengthwise direction
- the fabric is more elastic and
- has a higher surface weight
Higher lateral draft due to yarn tension.
Two bindings are worked absolutely counter-lapped if the under-lap and overlap displacements are in different directions.
When analyzing a counter-lapped pattern, the following characteristics become evident (compared to equal-lapped patterns):
- the wales are straight
- more stable in shape
Filet constructions are open, net-like fabrics produced with minimum two guide bars working the same lapping but
opposite, with a special threading.