Saturday, 31 October 2009

Pile Sinker Warp Knitting Tricot Machine

The pile sinker bar on tricot machines is positioned above the compound sinker bar and performs a lateral displacement. The pile threads are lapped over the pile sinkers according to the relevant lapping and are then formed to pile loops.
The distance between the pile sinkers and the compound sinkers can be changed,this means that the pile height can be adjusted.The knitting element of warp knitting tricot machine with sinker pile  showing on the Fig.01

1. Compound needle bar. 2. Guide bar. 3. Pile sinker bar. 4. Sinker bar. 5. Tongue bar (closing element bar,pusher lead) bar.
They are three differences between tricot machine with pile sinker bar and standard tricot machine:
  1. A special pile sinker (No.3) mounted on special sinker bar placed above and lateral with the usual sinker bar (No.4).
  2. The shape of the pile sinker modified and the sinker neb is omitted since the fabric can be held down by the pile sinker.By eliminating the neb of the sinker,the pile sinker can be placed lower and allow more space for guide bars to swing in.
  3. The pile sinker bar is mounted in bracket similar to guider bars bracket .The bracket of pile sinker bar do not swing as like as guide bar bracket but move freely laterally.
Horizontal shogging movement of pile sinker bar is generated by pattern disk .The knitting sequence of the machine is exactly the same as for any standard tricot machine and the loop pile is formed as result of the unique lapping movement.  
Lapping Movements of Pile Sinker Bar
Two different lapping movements are required to produce the ground structure and the pile loops.The ground lapping movement must correspond to the lateral movement of the pile sinker bar and both are shogged in the same direction and at the same magnitude.By always keeping the ground yarn between the same two pile sinkers,it does not cross over the sinker while shogging the under lap and forms no pile loops.
A simple ground construction is illustrated in Fig.2 (1) with the straight lines marking the position of one pile sinker during each and every knitted course.The pile sinker can only move laterally during the under lap period,when the needles are in the knock over (lowest) position.
The chain notations for the ground bar are: 1-2/ 1-0 // and the chain notation for pile sinker bar shogging movement are : 1-1 / 0-0 //.
A more complicated ground construction can be produced by two ground guide bars,as Fig. 2(2).One of the ground guide bars follows the sinker bar shogging movement,whilst the other bar laps the same needles every second course.The yarns of this second ground bar are deflected by the sinker bar,but since overlapping movement take place every second course,the yarns do not cress over the pile sinkers and do not form a pile.
The two ground bars,one of which is chaining,produce a much more stable construction than the one previous described.The chain notations for the second ground construction are:
  • 1-0 / 2-1 / 2-3 / 1-2 // for the back ground bar.
  • 0-0 / 0-1 / 1-1 / 1-0 // for the front guide bar.
  • 0-0 / 1-1 / 2-2 / 1-1 // for the pile sinker bar.
The fully threaded guide bar in the front displacement line used to produce the pile loops on the technical back of the fabric.The lapping movement applied to this guide bar causes its t-yarns to cross from needle to needle,above the pile sinker and when they are pulled into knock over position,they from pile loops over the edge of these pile sinkers (Fig.3).Since the pile sinker bar is shogged every knitted course,the lapping movement of the pile forming front guide bar can simply be a continues chaining motion.For pattering purpose it is possible,however to produce a more complicated movement and to use coloured yarns.

Sunday, 25 October 2009

Warp Knitting Power Net structure

One of the most popular nets on warp knitting is power net,power net produce by four bars Elastic Raschel machine with 1 in 1 out threaded for all guide bars (half threaded),usually produce in 28 gauge.The two front guide bars GB 1 and GB 2 knit the fish net structure and counter lap or shog opposite to each others.While the third  guide bar GB 3 and fourth guide bar GB 4,produce inlay shogging around the pillar stitches created by the two front guide bars.

The arrangement of threading in and the lapping movement of all guide bars illustrate in Fig .1,important is to note the way in which the four guide bars are threaded in relation to each others. The elastic yarn of the third guide bar are inlaid around the pillar stitch created by the the first guide bar,while the fourth guide bar inlays around pillar stitch of the second guide bar.

  Due the high tension of elastic yarn with relative high final stretch set on warping process, and les run-in on the knitting machine,the inlay pull straight and the net acquires its typical shapes as illustrated in Fig.2.
For medium-strong power net,usually used Nylon 70 denier on front guide bars GB 1- GB 2 and elastic yarn 280 denier for back guide bars GB 3 and GB 4.With run-in around 1000 mm/rack until 1100 mm/rack for GB 1 and GB 2.For  inlay bars GB 3 and GB 4 the run-in around 95 mm/rack to 120mm/rack with the density of the fabric between 26 to 30 courses /cm.

The Influence of Elastic-yarn on the Extensibility of the Power Net
By varying the tension of the elastic yarn while keeping the polyamide feed at a constant rate it is possible to produce a fabric with high or low length stretch.
If the elastic yarn thread is fed in with a particularly high tension, i.e. less elastic yarn is taken up per rack (unit of 480 courses), the stitch count of the greige goods increases.
The compacted fabric then provides a high longitudinal stretch while the width stretch of the net is low due to the increased tension of the elastic thread.
Furthermore, the greige width is only slightly narrower compared with the working width, though heavier in weight per m2.
The power net has low length stretch, if the elastic yarn is fed in with low thread tension, i.e. more elastic material is taken up per rack. In this case, the net structure is less compacted by the elastic yarn. Compared with a fabric containing elastic yarn with high run-in tension, the greige goods contract more in the width
and become lighter in weight per m2. With this setting, the length stretch is lower while the width stretch increases slightly.

The Influence of Polyamide on the Stretch Properties of Power Net
Another factor that has considerable influence on the stretch of a fabric is the amount of polyamide thread taken up per rack. A higher run-in leads to a more open net structure with the corresponding higher length and width stretch. The fabric width increases.
An article of corsetry produced with a considerably reduced polyamide feed has a tight loop structure that provides for little stretch in the length and width direction. The fabric width decreases.
In practice, keeping the above factors in mind, adjustments to elastic yarn and polyamide feed rates, as well as other machine settings are used to product the specific power net quality desired. The most important characteristics with regard to the fabric structure are the length and width stretch, the percentage of elastic yarn, uniformity of appearance, the fabric weight and width. It is the properties of the finished fabric that determines when and if production is taken up.

Wednesday, 21 October 2009

Karl Mayer News | Comfortable children’s seats made from 3D warp-knitted textiles

A seat construction made from manufactured-to-shape, warp-knitted spacer textiles produced on the HDR 6 EL

Checking-off towns by their car licence plates, counting the number of cars, or constantly feeding them sweets are just some of the tricks used by parents to keep their children happy on long journeys, but they usually forget the glaringly obvious – the comfort and well-being of their little passengers. The build-up of heat inside the car is the main reason for children becoming fractious, especially on long journeys to holiday destinations.
Whereas dad’s driving seat is fully climate-controlled to maintain his concentration levels, the children usually end up by feeling hot and sticky - but spacer textiles are on hand to solve the problem.

Spacer textiles produce comfortable seats
The perception of heat and moisture by passengers in the car can be described by means of the thermophysiological seat comfort. Basically, this property relates to climatic perception, and includes factors such as thermal transmission during the journey, including when sitting down, as well as moisture transport and buffering. Using ventilation effects between the seat and the body to create a pleasant microclimate is the best way of achieving optimum values.
Various test methods are used at the Hohenstein Institutes to measure the extent to which these are successful. Four physiologically determined parameters are used to describe the climatic seat comfort: initial heat flow as a perception of warmth immediately after sitting down, breathability, which is expressed in terms of the resistance to water vapour transmission, thermal insulation, and water vapour buffering, which is a measure of the amount of water vapour absorbed by the seat until it feels damp. The values for the climatic comfort indicators are determined at the Hohenstein Institutes using the upholstery tester and the skin model, and enable physiological construction principles to be drawn up for car seats. One of these indicates that warp-knitted spacer textiles are better lining materials than foams. 3D warp-knitted textiles are clearly superior for moisture buffering. The textile spacers are also better for use as interior cushioning, and exhibit a 3.7 times lower resistance to water vapour transmission than moulded foam. This value cannot be achieved by a rubber-coated fibrous web either. /1/

Manufactured-to-shape, warp-knitted spacer textiles
Spacer textiles for producing comfortable seats can be produced extremely economically and flexibly on KARL MAYER’s HighDistance® machine. This well-known manufacturer has made a breakthrough in designing 3D textile products using this high-speed, double-bar raschel machine, i.e. it is now possible to produce articles whose contours match the shape of the end product during the actual manufacturing process. This ready-to-use principle will be described in detail for the production of a children‘s car seat.
The basic principles of contouring products to match the end-use lie with the interaction between guide bars GB 4 and GB 5. These two yarn laying elements operate in the pile zone and are threaded with yarns in blocks for manufactured-to-shape production. They make up the full working width when arranged next to each other. If the distance between the two pile guide bars is reduced, the knitted width is reduced and, in the same way, increasing the distance between them increases the horizontal measurement of the textile (Fig/ download , right). The incremental width and height movements, which the guide bars execute towards and away from each other, are decisive for producing the contours. The shog movement per guide bar can be executed in the horizontal direction, i.e. along the needles – with a maximum path of 60 mm (30 needles) per stitch course – and without restriction in the production direction above the stitch courses. The gradient of the contours is produced by the specific coordinates of the shogging steps that are fixed by the lapping. If these alternate from being long in one direction and almost zero in the other direction, abrupt directional changes occur in the outline of the silhouette and the contours are flatter, i.e. staircase-shaped. Thus the outlines are worked course by course according to the structural plan to suit the intended end-use. An example of this is shown with all the details in the ‘Patterns’ section of this issue.
The pattern shown follows the shape of the child’s seat. The spacer textile is roughly 20 mm thick, has a specific resilience, and was produced professionally by an upholstery company – the result is a comfortable ride for children on long journeys.
/1/ Functional textiles for optimising climatic comfort on car seats, Paper presented by Prof. Dr. K. H. Umbach, Hohenstein Institutes, at the Annual Conference of the Forschungskuratorium Textil (Textile Research Council), 10.11.2004

Saturday, 17 October 2009

Identifying Motor Defects on Warp Knitting and Warping Machines

As we knows all the warp knitting and warp preparation machines used a electric motor to drive those machines,some of them still used a DC motor,mostly on old machines such like warping machine DS series which are equipped whit WA II roller which used DC motor.For all new machines all of them used AC motor for its drive.

In this article explain how to identify in case that the motor on warp knitting or warping machines were defect or suspected to defect.

Electrical maintenance personnel have for years been limited to troubleshooting with no more than a multitester and a megger. This unfortunately does not provide enough information to allow most electricians to feel totally confident in determining the problem on the warp knitting machines or warping machines if an electrical problem exists or not.
Sometimes I heard on the many client when some warp knitting machine or warping machines stop due some problem which not yet knows, whether the machine stop cause of electric problem or the mechanical side,the mechanic technician said,"it must be an electrical problem !",and other electrician said,"its must be a motor",whatever this motor of main drives or the other motor on the EBA system for the beams drive.
This has been an on-going battle and, up to recently, technology has been primarily developed for the mechanical side.

Vibration shows a two times line frequency (2FL) spike and that must mean it’s electrical. Right?... Wrong!!!! There are so many variables producing a 2FL today that removing a motor from service for an electrical repair due only to a high 2FL is a mistake. Possibly an expensive one. The best thing you could hope for is that the repair facility will call back asking "what do you want done?" to this perfectly good motor.

"RESISTANCE to ground or megger testing is all we need." I find this statement hard to believe. How many times as an electrician have we been nervous restarting a tripped motor after verifying with our trusty megger that, "The motor is fine." The fact is, numerous reasons can exist which causes a motor to trip that will not be seen by a megger, such as a turn to turn short. Breakdown in the insulation between individual turns of a winding can occur inside a stator slot or at the end turn and be completely isolated from ground. Phase to phase shorts can occur the same way. If these faults are left unattended, they can result in rapid deterioration of the winding, potentially ending in a complete motor replacement. Restarting of a motor that has tripped should be considered only after these faults have been factored out.If not can be lead to damage the others parts behind the motor i.e : the inverter!

Thursday, 15 October 2009

The Principles of Double Needle Bar Warp Knitting Machine

To demonstrate the working procedure of double needle bar raschel machine,a simplified version of the knitting elements
is illustrated in Fig.240 showing the two needle bars marked with the letters f (for front) and b (for back),the two guide bars marked with the number 1 and 2,two trick plates and two sinker bars.
The double needle bar machine is almost symmetrical so that the needle bars can be identified as a front and back only by the position of the batching device.The definition of front and back bars as well as the definition of the first and the second guide bars are made fro the sole purpose of establishing the knitting relationships each of guide bars and each of the needle bars in the following descriptions.

The needle bars are independently operated in an up and down movement while the guide bars are swing alternately among the needles of each bar.The simplified knitting cycles illustrated in Fig.241 1-5 can be describe as follows:

  • Stage 1- The guide bars are positioned at the back of the machine,above the back needle bar.The front sinker is placed forward to secure the fabric while the front needle bar ascends to clearing position.The guide bar perform the under-lap shoging movement for the front needle bar and then swing to the hook-side.
  • Stage 2- On the hook side of the front needle bar,the guide bars shog an overlap according to the pattern mechanism and then swing back.Note that not every guide bar needs to form an overlap as further explained in the following paragraphs.
  • Stage 3- The swing back is completed,the yarns are wrapped within the hooks so that the front needle bar can start to descend.The front sinker bar retreats while the back one move forward.
  • Stage 4- Front needle bar descent,the previously formed loops which rested on the needle stems close the latches.The front sinker bar continues to retreat,the back one is now above its needle bar.The guide bars swing for the third time,this time to the front in order to clear the way above the back needle bar.Under-lap shoging movement fro the back needle bar can start.
  • Stage 5- Front needle bar is at knockover position and the needles form new loops.Back needle bar,now with its fabric secured by the sinker bar,ascends to clearing position.
The sequence describe is only one half of the knitting cycle and the movement of the back needle bar is identical to that of the front.Every knitting cycle of this machine type incorporates six swinging movements which are produced by the machine camshaft.

Drafting design for a double needle bar uses different procedure from single needle bar machines.Two rows of dots are necessary to show one knitting cycle of the machine.The first row always represents the knitting course of the front needle bar while the second represents the knitting course of the back needle bar.

The up and down movement of the needles as well as the swinging movement of the guide bars are constantly produced by the driving mechanism.
The different fabric types and effects are produced by the patterning mechanism.

When both guide bars move in the same direction in 1 and 1 lapping movement as illustrated in Fig.242,the same needle are constantly wrapped by the same yarns and unconnected chains are produced.The top view shows the movement of the guide bars between two needle bars and demonstrates this case.By observing the lapping movement one can deduce that the needles on the front needle bar are always wrapped with 2 - 0 movement,while the needle on the back are always wrapped with a 2- 4 movement.
The 1 and 1 lapping movement is not normally uses on the double bar needle machines and in fact any constan reciprocating movement will form a similar effect.

To make continuous fabric,it is customary to double each lapping movement and only then to form an underlap.A double face fabric is fromed according to lapping movement in Fig.243.Both guide bars perform overlaps on both needle bars.

The chain notations are:
Guide bar 1: 2-0-2-0/2-4-2-4
Guide bar 2: 2-4-2-4/2-0-2-0

Note :That four chain link are used for every knitting cycle,two for the first phase (front needle bar sequence) and two fro the second phase.

To produce two separated fabric,one on the front needle bar and the second on the back one,each of the guide bars is knitting on one needle bar only.The swinging movement is not altered but each of the guide bars,by not overlapping a needle bar,does not connect their yarns to these needles.

Fig.244 illustrates this procedure.The first guide bar overlaps the front needle bar during the first phase of the first knitting cycle,swings in and out of the second needle bar without overlapping it and then again overlaps the needles of the front needle bar during the first phase of the second knitting cycle.In the same way,the second guide bar overlaps only the back needle bar.Two separated fabrics,each of them with a construction of 1 - and - 1 are formed.

The chain notations for this case are:
Guide bar 1: 2-0-2-2/2-4-2-2
Guide bar 2: 2-2-2-0/2-2-2-4

If the guide bars switch their lapping movements,i.e.guide bar 1 overlaps the back needle bar while guide bar 2 overlaps the front (Fig.245),two fabrics which are locked together by the underlap are formed.

The chain notation for this fabric type are:
Guide bar 1: 2-2-2-0/2-2-2-4
Guide bar 2: 2-0-2-2/2-4-2-2

A third guide bar can be added between the previous two in order to increase the knitting possibilities.When the third guide bar is only threaded one guide finger on one side,it can be driven to connect the two separated fabrics,produce by the fully threaded guide bars as illustrated in Fig.246 a.The fabric which formed in this way can be twice as wide as the knitting machine.

By threading the middle guide bar through two guide fingers,one on each side,a tubular fabric is formed as demonstrated in Fig.246 b.

A fully threaded middle guide bar is used to produce a sandwich of two fabrics connected by the yarns.The fabric is then cut and separated into two plush fabrics by special equipment.The principle is illustrated in Fig.246 c.

The chain notations for the last three cases are:
Guide bar 1: 2-0-2-2/2-4-2-2
Guide bar 2: 2-0-2-0/2-4-2-4
Guide bar 3: 2-2-2-0/2-2-2-4

With the use of more guide bars,the fabric produced on each of the needle bars can be much more elaborate.

-Literature : Warp Knitting Production by Dr.S.Raz,Melliand Textilberichte GmbH ,1987.

Wednesday, 14 October 2009

Warp Knitting Pattern | Sea of Flowers in Abstractly Modern Design

Karl Mayer Pattern No. 141/2007
(Design-No.42B 0015)
From Jacquardtronic Lace with 42 guide bars,from which 36 pattern guide bars,ground guide bar 1 (pillar stitch),1 Piezo Jacquard bar ( JB 45+46) and ground guide bar 47 (elastane)

This pattern make flowers blossom,being a charming mix of naive painting and abstract art with alienation effects.Marguerites as drawn by children encircle scenery of grounds with multiple structures,thick contours and plain,filled arched parts.Only a second glance reveals the ocean of blossoms and leaves.The created lace meets the modern taste,as well.


This development suggestion is intended for your information and guidance and is without obligation. No guarantee or liability of any kind can be undertaken.It is not our intention to infringe any existing patent rights.






Pattern (finished fabric)
Stitch courses  : 36/cm (set:18.5/cm)
Weight : 17.9 g/m2
Finished fabric : 92.0 % of the warping width
Finishing : Relaxing,washing,setting,dyeing
Machine : JL 42/1 B
Machine gauge    : E 24 (needle/25.4 mm=1")
Machine width : 132" (335 cm)
No. of guide bars : 42
Machine speed : 630 min-1
Production (finish fabric) : 10.5 running m/h
Material specification Run-in per rack
GB 1 dtex 44 f 13 polyamide 6.6 bright 1200 mm/rack
PB 4+5 dtex 45 f 11 Grilon® C-140 pattern beam
PB 9+14 dtex 110 x3 x2 polyamide,Org.A666 creel
PB 10-13,15-38 dtex 78 f 68 x 4  polyamide,Meryl,FT,120 T/S A 5024 Moulinage creel
PB 39-43 dtex 167 polyester flat,pink creel
JB 45+46 dtex 44 f 13 polyamide 6.6 360 mm/rack
GB 47 dtex 156 Lycra® clear 200 mm/rack
Lapping Threading
GB 1 1 - 0 / 0 - 1 // Fully set
JB 45+46 0 - 0 / 2 -2 // Fully set
GB 47 1 - 1 / 0 - 0 // Fully set

Straight Graphics in Feminine and Fanciful Style | Warp Knitting Pattern

Karl Mayer Pattern No.111/2007
(Design No.TL43 0013)
From Textronic Lace with 43 guide bars from which 24 pattern guide bars in the front of the fall plate, 1 Piezo Jacquard bar (JB 33+34),14 Pattern bars behind the fall plate as well as ground guide bar 32 (pillar stitch) and ground guide bar 52 (elastane).

The lace presented below is the continuation of the new patterns of TL 43/1/24.Kept in soft pastel shades,the filigree elaborated quality shows play ful interpretation of the severe topic of squares.On the transparent,multiform ground the quads from the net structure in the chequered design limited as its parts by zig-zag edge in rich design.One of the two edges has completed by the gimp in floral design for delightful accentuation of the feminine  style of the predominantly straight world of motifs.This pattern is the product of the cooperation of Karl Mayer with the companies Invista,Moulinage du Plouy and Toulemonde.

 This development suggestion is intended for your information and guidance and is without obligation. No guarantee or liability of any kind can be undertaken.It is not our intention to infringe any existing patent rights.



Pattern (finished fabric)
Stitch courses  : 38/cm (set:21/cm)
Weight : 23.4 g/m2
Finished fabric : 92.0 % of the warping width
Finishing : Relaxing,washing,setting,dyeing
Machine : TL 43/1/24
Machine gauge    : E 24 (nd./25.4 mm=1")
Machine width : 134" (340 cm)
No. of guide bars : 43
Machine speed : 600 [min⁻¹]
Production (finish fabric) : 9.5 running m/h
Material specification Run-in per rack
PB 1-12 dtex 156 x 2 polyamide,Tactel® BR.Org Creel
PB 13-16 dtex 150 x 2 polyester,Brill,Multicolor No.122 Creel
PB 17-20 dtex 156 x 2 polyamide,Tactel® BR.Org Creel
PB 21-24 dtex 150 x 2 polyester,Brill,Multicolor No.122 Creel
PB 27-28 dtex 45 f 11 co-polyamide,Grilon® C-140 Pattern beam
GB 32 dtex 44 f 11 polyamide 6.6 1170 mm/rack
JB 33+34 dtex 44 f 13 polyamide 6.6 330 mm/rack
PB 35+42 dtex 110 x3 x2 polyamide Org.575S Creel
PB 36-41,44-49 dtex 167 viscose,REF V 117 Creel
GB 52 dtex 156 elastane-Lycra® clear 200 mm/rack
Lapping Threading
GB 32 1 - 0 / 0 - 1 // Fully set
JB 33+34 0 - 0 / 2 -2 // Fully set
GB 52 1 - 1 / 0 - 0 // Fully set